Emerging issues
Air quality Ozone Biodiversity Governance
Climate Inland Water Land Vulnerability
Human settlements Marine


The marine and coastal resources of South Africa are a rich and diverse national asset, providing important economic and social opportunities for the human population, which, in turn, has developed a strong reliance on these resources for commercial opportunity and gain, food, recreation, and transport.  These resources have facilitated job creation and general economic upliftment in coastal regions.  Increasing human and environmental pressure on the country’s marine and coastal ecosystems, however, has changed the functioning and structure of many of their components, and uncontrolled or mismanaged use has led to over-exploitation, degradation, and resource loss.

Coastal land use

This indicator investigates the percentage land use in 14 different coastal metropolitan and district municipalities.

Coastal wastewater

3 Factors contributing to coastal wastewater are listed under this indicator. These factors are: Number of discharge points; Industrial and domestic wastewater volumes and Total daily discharge.

Marine oil spills

The amount of oil spilt (presented in tonnes) in South African waters between 1987 and 1994 is presented under this indicator.
© 2005 - 2010 Department of Environmental Affairs
Site and design by Frameworks
This page was last updated 31/07/2017